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Tourism revenues bring economic growth and prosperity to attractive tourist destinations which can raise the standard of living in destination communities. Sustainable tourism operators commit themselves to creating jobs for local community members.

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Increase in tourism revenue to an area acts as a driver for the development of increased infrastructure. As tourist demands increase in a destination, a more robust infrastructure is needed to support the needs of both the tourism industry and the local community. Dominant barriers identified were lack of available money to invest, lack of incentive programs, other business priorities, and limited access to suppliers of sustainable products, with the most common recommendation being the need for incentive programs to encourage businesses to become more sustainable. The renewed emphasis on outward-orientated growth which accompanied the rise in neoliberal development strategies in the s in the south also focused attention on international tourism as an import potential growth sector for many countries, particularly in Less Economically Developed Countries LEDCs as many of the world's most beautiful and 'untouched' places are located in the Third World.

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Prior to the s studies tended to assume that the extension of the tourism industry to LEDCs was a good thing. In the s this changed as academics started to take a much more negative view on tourism's consequences, particularly criticising the industry as an effective contributor towards development. International tourism is a volatile industry with visitors quick to abandon destinations that were formerly popular because of threats to health or security.


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One common issue with tourism in a place where there was none prior to First World companies arriving is that of the displacement and resettlement of local communities. After the second World War First World conservationists with the intent of making such areas accessible to tourists as well as preserving the areas natural beauty and ecology moved into the areas where the Maasai tribes lived.

This was often achieved through the setting up of national parks and conservation areas Monbiot ; [22] Olerokonga, It has been claimed that Maasai activities did not threaten the wildlife and the First World knowledge was blurred by ' colonial disdain' and misunderstandings of savannah wildlife. This kind of 'sustainable tourism' is viewed by many as an oxymoron or metaphor since it seriously can't change anything.

There likely is no way to make tourism sustainable but if all tourists cooperate it could possibly work in a viable world. It is a reality that many things done in the name of sustainability are actually masking the desire to allow extra profits. Natural resource degradation, pollution , and loss of biodiversity are detrimental because they increase vulnerability, undermine system health, and reduce resilience. This aspect of sustainability has been the most often discussed through the literature by numerous authors such as Hall, C.

Many coastal areas are experiencing particular pressure from growth in lifestyles and growing numbers of tourists. Coastal environments are limited in extent consisting of only a narrow strip along the edge of the ocean. Coastal areas are often the first environments to experience the detrimental impacts of tourism. A detailed study of the impact on coastal areas, with reference to western India can be an example.

The inevitable change is on the horizon as holiday destinations put more effort into sustainable tourism.

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Some studies have led to interesting conceptual models applicable for coastal tourism. The 'inverted funnel model' and the 'embedded model' Jacob, S. Mount Everest attracts many tourist climbers wanting to summit the peak of the highest mountain in the world each year. Over the years, carelessness and excessive consumption of resources by mountaineers, as well as overgrazing by livestock, have damaged the habitats of snow leopards , lesser pandas , Tibetan bears , and scores of bird species.

To counteract past abuses, various reforestation programs have been carried out by local communities and the Nepalese government. A large quantity of the litter of past climbers—tons of items such as tents, cans, crampons, and human waste—has been hauled down from the mountain and recycled or discarded. However, the bodies of most of the more than climbers who have died on Everest notably on its upper slopes have not been removed, as they are unreachable or—for those that are accessible—their weight makes carrying them down extremely difficult.

Notable in the cleanup endeavour have been the efforts of the Eco Everest Expeditions, the first of which was organized in to commemorate the death that January of Everest-climbing pioneer Sir Edmund Hillary. Those expeditions also have publicized ecological issues in particular, concerns about the effects of climate change in the region through observations that the Khumbu Icefall has been melting. Mass tourism tends to put a strain on fragile island ecosystems and the natural resources it provides.

Studies have shown that early practices of tourism were unsustainable and took a toll to environmental factors, hurting the natural landscapes that originally drew in the tourists. This is due to inefficient political decisions and policies along with irresponsible tourist activity, such as reckless diving and waste disposal, damaging coastal and marine environments.

Such practices also altered physical features of the landscape and caused a loss in biodiversity , leading to the disruption of ecosystems. Third World countries are especially interested in international tourism, [35] and many believe it brings countries a large selection of economic benefits including employment opportunities, small business development, and increased in payments of foreign exchange. Many assume that more money is gained through developing luxury goods and services in spite of the fact that this increases a countries dependency on imported products, foreign investments and expatriate skills.

It has been said that the economic benefits of large-scale tourism are not doubted but that the backpacker or budget traveller sector is often neglected as a potential growth sector by Third World governments. There has been the promotion of sustainable tourism practices surrounding the management of tourist locations by locals or the community.

This form of tourism is based on the premise that the people living next to a resource are the ones best suited to protecting it.


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This means that the tourism activities and businesses are developed and operated by local community members, and certainly with their consent and support. Sustainable tourism typically involves the conservation of resources that are capitalized upon for tourism purposes. Locals run the businesses and are responsible for promoting the conservation messages to protect their environment. Community-based sustainable tourism CBST associates the success of the sustainability of the ecotourism location to the management practices of the communities who are directly or indirectly dependent on the location for their livelihoods.

A salient feature of CBST is that local knowledge is usually utilised alongside wide general frameworks of ecotourism business models. This allows the participation of locals at the management level and typically allows a more intimate understanding of the environment.

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The use of local knowledge also means an easier entry level into a tourism industry for locals whose jobs or livelihoods are affected by the use of their environment as tourism locations. Environmentally sustainable development crucially depends on the presence of local support for a project. However, recent research has found that economic linkages generated by CBST may only be sporadic, and that the linkages with agriculture are negatively affected by seasonality and by the small scale of the cultivated areas.

This means that CBST may only have small-scale positive effects for these communities. It has also been said that partnerships between governments and tourism agencies with smaller communities is not particularly effective because of the disparity in aims between the two groups, i. In Honduras such a divergence can be demonstrated where consultants from the World Bank and officials from the Institute of tourism wanted to set up a selection of 5-star hotels near various ecotourism destinations.

Mader [43] concluded that the grassroot organisations were more successful in Honduras. There has been some discussion regarding the told of inter-governmental organisations and the development of sustainable tourism practices in the third world.

Sustainable tourism

Mowforth and Munt commented on the language used to describe the environment and local culture in such documents because the preservation of the environment and local culture are the two main objectives when practising sustainable tourism. They pointed out that some of the key words used were 'core asset', 'core product', 'product quality' and 'preserve'. It is arguments such as these that postulate that there is a gap between the advice given by non-governmental or inter-governmental organisations to Third World governments and what can actually be brought to realisation.

These arguments try and persuade readers that documents like the one released by the WTTC that the development of sustainable tourism actually 'bypasses the interests of local people'. There are many definitions and understandings of responsible tourism. According to the Center for Responsible Tourism, responsible tourism can be defined as, "tourism that maximizes the benefits to local communities, minimizes negative social or environmental impacts, and helps local people conserve fragile cultures and habitats or species.

It is more than a form of tourism as it represents an approach to engaging with tourism, be that as a tourist, a business, locals at a destination or any other tourism stakeholder.

It emphasizes that all stakeholders are responsible for the kind of tourism they develop or engage in. This ensures that the tourism service providers and purchasers or consumers are held accountable. Within the notion of betterment resides the acknowledgement that conflicting interests need to be balanced. However, the objective is to create better places for people to live in and to visit. Importantly, there is no blueprint for responsible tourism: what is deemed responsible may differ depending on places and cultures. Responsible Tourism is an aspiration that can be realized in different ways in different originating markets and in the diverse destinations of the world Goodwin, The European Travel Commission in and a multilateral initiative to instate environmentally sound tourism and development was advanced.

Given the dramatic increase in tourism, the report strongly promotes responsible tourism. Focusing in particular on businesses, according to the Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism, it will have the following characteristics: [53]. While widely acclaimed, responsible tourism has also been critiqued. Studies have shown that the degree to which individuals engage in responsible tourism is contingent upon their engagement socially. Meaning, tourist behaviors will fluctuate depending on the range of social engagement that each tourist chooses take part in.

Humane tourism is part of the movement of responsible tourism. The idea is to empower local communities through travel related businesses around the world, first and foremost in developing countries. The idea of humane travel or humane tourism is to connect travelers from Europe , North America , Australia and New Zealand seeking new adventures and authentic experiences directly, to local businesses in the specific locations they wish to visit — thus, giving economic advantages to local businesses and giving travelers authentic and truly unique travel experiences.

Humane travel or humane tourism focuses on the people, the local community. The idea is to enable travelers to experience the world through the eyes of its local people while contributing directly to those people, ensuring that tourist dollars benefit the local community directly. Humane tourism is about giving opportunity to the local people, empower them, enable them to enjoy the fruits of tourism directly. The Internet is changing tourism.

More and more travelers are planning their travels and vacations via the net. The Internet enables people to cut off commissions. The traveler can search for new destinations to visit, talk or read about other people experience, and buy the services directly. The Internet platform can encourage local people to start new businesses and that already existing small businesses will begin to promote themselves through the net and receive the economic advantages of this directly in their communities.

The world is now in a new tourism age, with globalization and the Internet playing a key role. The new travelers have traveled the world, they have seen the classic sites. Staying at a Western hotel is not attractive enough, and they are excited by the prospect of experiencing the authentic local way of life: to go fishing with a local fisherman, to eat the fish with his family, to sleep in a typical village house.

These tourists or travelers, are happy to know that while doing so they promote the economic well-being of those same people they spend time with. Humane tourism is part of Responsible tourism. Humane travel focuses on that host local population. The South African national tourism policy [59] used the term "responsible tourism" and mentioned the well-being of the local community as a main factor. From the Rio summit or earth summit on [62] until the UN Commission on Sustainable Development in , [63] the main focus of the tourism industry was the earth, the planet, the places, "green" or "eco" tourism.